DMCA. Copyrighted Work that you can Claim.
Base have 237 965 books.
Search: 


📙 Atmospheric Ammonia: Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts by Mark A. Sutton (auth.), Mark A. Sutton, Stefan Reis, Samantha M.H. Baker (eds.) — epub download


Atmospheric ammonia is increasingly being recognized as a pollutant of key environmental concern. Ammonia contributes to several environmental problems, including direct toxic effects on vegetation, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, leading to the eutrophication and acidification of sensitive ecosystem, and to the formation of secondary particulate matter in the atmosphere, with effects on human health, atmospheric visibility and global radiative balance. Ammonia emissions are increasing rapidly in many parts of the world, so that these environmental concerns are expected to grow in future. In Europe, efforts are currently being made to reduce ammonia emissions, alongside reductions in other air pollutants, notably sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. However, reducing ammonia emissions has proved uncertain and challenging, with only modest regional reductions achieved to date. As the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are reduced, ammonia is therefore increasingly dominating the air pollution climate of Europe and the consequent environmental impacts.

It was in this context that the leading international experts met in Edinburgh in December 2006 under the auspices of the UN-ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution to review the current state of the science of ammonia in the atmosphere. Specifically, the international workshop was a joint effort between several bodies of the Convention: the Ammonia Expert Group, the Working Group on Effects and the Task Force on Measurement and Modelling, together with the COST 729 and the NitroEurope Integrated Project. This book reports the underpinning information in the form of several major reviews, combined with supporting chapters on recent research results, to provide an up-to-date scientific synthesis in relation to four key themes:

  1. Re-evaluation of the critical thresholds for ammonia effects on sensitive plants and habitats
  2. Review of approaches for downscaling transboundary assessments to deal with ammonia hotspots in relation to operational modelling and monitoring
  3. Review of regional scale atmospheric transport and chemistry models in relation to their formulation and results for ammonia.

Each of these themes is of fundamental to the quantification of ammonia impacts in the environment and the assessment of possible abatement measures. The reviews highlight how the critical threshold for ammonia concentrations – the "critical level" – has been overestimated in the past, and the book explains the new estimates. Monitoring of atmospheric concentrations and deposition is the only independent way to verify the success of emission abatement policies. The analysis shows how it has been a major challenge to verify the reported reductions in emissions, but that several new datasets now support expected trends in emission reduction, even though total emissions may still be underestimated. Atmospheric models are central to the assessment at both regional and landscape scales. The dynamics within ‘ammonia hotspots’ are particularly important to understand both the fate of ammonia export from source regions and to assess the local environmental impacts. Similarly, modeling at regional scales forms the basis for transboundary assessment of ammonia emissions and deposition. At both scales, the present assessment shows that quantification of ammonia dry deposition remains a key uncertainty. Cross-cutting analyses in the review addressed the reliability of ammonia emissions data and abatement efficiencies, as well as the agricultural and environmental policy context, considering how scientific understanding can help address the challenges to reduce the adverse effects of ammonia in the environment.

This book will be valuable to all those interested in the behaviour of ammonia in the environment, as it explains the current state of knowledge, reports new critical level values, and describes the main scientific uncertainties.



About book:

About file:

  • File size: 19 667 653
  • Format: pdf


Security code:
Download button

Similar books results


Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects
Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects pdf free by Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects, National Research Council

The generation of electricity by wind energy has the potential to reduce environmental impacts caused by the use of fossil fuels. Although the use of wind energy to generate electricity is increasing rapidly in the United States, government guidance to he...

Geothermal Power Plants, Second Edition: Princi Applications, Case Studies and Environmental Impact
Geothermal Power Plants, Second Edition: Princi Applications, Case Studies and Environmental Impact download pdf by Ronald DiPippo

Ron DiPippo, Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, is a world-regarded geothermal expert. This single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation from fundamental scientific and engin...

Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia
Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia download pdf by Committee on Stabilization Targets for Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Concentrations, National Research Council

Emissions of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels have ushered in a new epoch where human activities will largely determine the evolution of Earth's climate. Because carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is long lived, it can effectively lock the Ea...

Environmental Impact Assessment: A Guide to Best Professional Practices
Environmental Impact Assessment: A Guide to Best Professional Practices download pdf by Charles H. Eccleston

Under the best of circumstances, preparing an environmental impact assessment (EIA) can be a complex and challenging task. Experience indicates that the scope and quality of such analyses varies widely throughout the U.S. as well as internationally. Writt...

Green Energy: Sustainable Electricity Supply with Low Environmental Impact
Green Energy: Sustainable Electricity Supply with Low Environmental Impact free pdf by Eric Jeffs

Green Energy: Sustainable Electricity Supply with Low Environmental Impact defines the future of the world’s electricity supply system, exploring the key issues associated with global warming, and which energy systems are best suited to reducing it. Ele...

Environmental Impact of Invertebrates For Biological Control 0f Anthropods: Methods and Risk Assessment
Environmental Impact of Invertebrates For Biological Control 0f Anthropods: Methods and Risk Assessment download pdf by Franz Bigler, Dirk Babendreier, Ulrich Kuhlmann

This book provides an invaluable review of the current methodologies used for assessing the environmental impacts of invertebrate biological agents used to control pests in agriculture and forestry. It explores methods to evaluate post-release effects and...

Air Pollution: Health and Environmental Impacts
Air Pollution: Health and Environmental Impacts free pdf by Bhola R. Gurjar, Luisa T. Molina, C.S. P. Ojha

Air pollution is recognized as one of the leading contributors to the global environmental burden of disease, even in countries with relatively low concentrations of air pollution. Air Pollution: Health and Environmental Impacts examines the effect of thi...

Environmental Impact of Textiles
Environmental Impact of Textiles free pdf by K. Slater

Environmental impact of textiles examines what effects all phases of textile production and use have on the environment, from growing or making fibres to discarding a product after its useful life has ended. It looks at the physical environment affected b...

Solid Biofuels for Energy: A Lower Greenhouse Gas Alternative
Solid Biofuels for Energy: A Lower Greenhouse Gas Alternative download pdf by Calliope Panoutsou (auth.), Panagiotis Grammelis (eds.)

Climate change, environmental impact and declining natural resources are driving scientific research and novel technical solutions. Green Energy and Technology serves as a publishing platform for scientific and technological approaches to "green" - i.e., ...

  HEAT TRANSFER DATABOOK WOLVERINE

  HEAT TRANSFER DATABOOK WOLVERINE

Healthy, Thrifty Meals

Heat Shock Proteins in Neural Cells
Heat Shock Proteins in Neural Cells epub download by Christiane Richter-Landsberg (auth.)

This valuable new title addresses the role of heat shock proteins and cellular stress responses in the brain, with a major focus on nerve cells and glia, namely oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Heat shock proteins are involved in many physiological proces...

Heart Failure: Molecules, Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets: Novartis Foundation Symposium 274
Heart Failure: Molecules, Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets: Novartis Foundation Symposium 274 pdf free by Novartis Foundation(eds.)

Heart failure is the main cause of death and disability in the industrialized world. There is a major need for novel therapeutics for prevention and reversal of cardiac pathology associated with heart failure and cardiac enlargement. Over recent years, dr...

Heart Cell Communication in Health and Disease
Heart Cell Communication in Health and Disease download pdf by Walmor C. De Mello (auth.), Walmor C. De Mello, Michiel J. Janse (eds.)

In Heart Cell Communication in Health and Disease an extensive review of different aspects of heart cell communication is presented. The book starts with the fundamental concept that cardiac cells are communicated, and then proceeds to the role of gap jun...

Heat Shock Proteins and the Cardiovascular System
Heat Shock Proteins and the Cardiovascular System free download by A. A. Knowlton (auth.), A. A. Knowlton M.D. (eds.)

Heat shock proteins (HSP) were originally described in heat-shocked drosophila by Ritossa in the early 1960's. In the last 5 years it has become apparent that these heat shock proteins have important functions both in the normal cell and in the stressed c...

Heat and Fluid Flow in Power System Components. Hmt The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer

Heat Pumps
Heat Pumps free epub by Kazimierz Brodowicz, Tomasz Dyakowski, M L Wyszynski and Wyszynski (Auth.)

Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump ther...

Heart of Darkness: Joseph Conrad